Sunday, May 8, 2011

Lesson Plan on WH-Questions

Form: 2                                                                                         
Level: Upper Intermediate                                                                         
Theme: People
Topic: Grammar- WH-Questions
Objective: To teach students on the purpose of WH-questions and their usage in sentences.

Learning Outcomes: At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
  1. Identify and classify the different WH-questions by finding the correct match. (answer)
  2. Construct correct sentences using the WH-questions.
Moral Values: 
  1. Cooperation
  2. Sharing ideas and thoughts
Educational Emphasis:
  1. Critical thinking skills
  2. Learning how to learn skills
Teaching Aids: sticky notes

Language Content:
1. Language for Informational Use
2. Language for Interpersonal Use

Teaching Procedure:

Instructional Activity
Set Induction
1.      Teacher greets students.
2.      Teacher informs the class that they will be learning about WH-questions.
3.      Teacher asks the students whether they have heard about it before.
4.      Teacher asks the students to say the WH-questions out loud.
Activity 1
1.      Teacher lists down the WH-questions.
2.      Teacher discusses with students on what the WH-questions indicate.
3.      Teacher makes sure the students understand the purposes of the WH-questions.

Activity 2
1.      Teacher informs the students that they will be doing an activity which requires them to move about.
2.      Teacher explains about the activity to the students.

There are 11 questions involving the usage of WH and 11 answers to the questions. The teacher will randomly give out the questions and answers, which are written on sticky notes to the students. What they have to do is find their partner to form a pair and complete the question and answer set.

3.      Teacher starts the game.
4.      Teacher monitors students’ progress and stops the game once everyone has found their partner.
5.      Teacher instructs the students to read out their question and answer set one by one.
6.      Teacher corrects any mistakes.

Activity 3
1.      Teacher now instructs every pair to write sentences based on the WH-questions in their grammar book.
2.      Teacher allocates time for them to discuss and write.
3.      Teacher asks a pair to present their sentences (questions)
4.      Teacher corrects any mistakes.
1.      Teacher asks the students what do they think of the lesson and what have they learned.
2.      Teacher recaps and concludes the lesson.

1.       What time did you come home last night?
2.       When do you do your homework?
3.       What is that?
4.       How did you feel after the accident?
5.       Who came to the party alone?
6.       Which one do you like?
7.       Why are you smiling?
8.       Where is your house?
9.       Who has my bag?
10.   What are you doing?
11.   When is Miss Nashrah leaving?

1.       I came home at 11 p.m.
2.       I do my homework at night.
3.       That is an English book.
4.       I felt traumatized.
5.       Zafirah came to the party alone.
6.       I like the red blouse better than the blue one.
7.       Because I am happy to see you.
8.       Where is your house?
9.       Hafidzin has your bag.
10.   I am participating in Miss Nashrah’s activity.
11.   She is leaving this Friday.

Saturday, May 7, 2011

Comparatives vs. Superlatives

Comparatives and superlatives fall under the category of "adjectives". Their function is to show the comparison between one thing and another. Here are simple explanations on how to differentiate the usage of comparative and superlative, taken from ESLBase. 

One syllable adjectives
Comparative: add er (cheaper)
Superlative: add est (the cheapest)

One syllable adjectives ending in 'e'
Comparative: add r (nicer)
Superlative: add st (the nicest)

One syllable adjectives ending in consonant - vowel - consonant
Comparative: add consonant + er (hotter)
Superlative: add consonant + est (the hottest)

Two syllable adjectives ending in 'y'
Comparative: replace 'y' with ier (happier)
Superlative: replace 'y' with iest (the happiest)

Two or more syllable adjectives
Comparative: add more / less (more / less beautiful)
Superlative: add the most / the least (the most / least beautiful)

Irregular adjectives
good - better - the best
bad - worse - the worst
far - further - the furthest

However, students can easily confuse the usage of both forms. Here are common errors people make.

Bigger vs. Biggest
Don't say: Which of these two guys has the biggest feet?
Say instead: Which of these two guys has the bigger feet?
Why?: You need to use the comparative form when comparing two things.

Less vs. Least
Don't say: Of all the movies, that one seems less deserving of the award.
Say instead: Of all the movies, that one seems least deserving of the award.
Why?: "Of all the movies" indicates that there are more than two movies, thus the superlative form "least" is used.

Better vs. Best
Don't say: The best of the two golfers actually lost the game.
Say instead: The better of the two golfers actually lost the game.
Why?: "Better" is the comparative form to compare two things.

More vs. Most
Don't say: I think he's more smarter when he's at the office.
Say instead: I think he's smarter when he's at the office.
Why?: "More" is the comparative and "most" is the superlative. You must use "more" and "most" with modifiers that don't have "-er" and "-est" forms. You say "more intelligent" or "most intelligent", not "intelligenter" or "intelligentest". You should never, ever add "-er" or "-est" endings to a word that you're also modifying with "more" or "most". It is never "more smarter" or "most smartest", because then you have two words doing the same job. More examples;

She is the prettiest of all their children.
She is the most beautiful of all their children. 

This is the most vicious review I've ever read.
This is the cruelest review I've ever read.

His story was shorter than Tom's.
His story was more interesting than Tom's.

Try this little test to know whether you have understood this well :)

Pick the correct choice.
  1. Both professors had published a book that week, so they spent the entire evening arguing over which book was (bigger, biggest).
  2. Which of the Three Stooges has the (bigger, biggest) following among males?
  3. Of all their 6 cats, I think Fluffy is (less, the least) likely to do something embarrassing in front of Aunt Nini.
  4. Ronaldo couldn't decide between his two evil schemes; the first was (less, the least) difficult, but the second was (more, the most) fiendish.
  5. Rory will be (happier, more happier) when the kids are out of the house and she can rest all day.
  6. It was the (tastiest, most tastiest) anchovy-and-onion pizza they had ever eaten. 
Answers are in the comment section!

Thursday, May 5, 2011


I am singing along and swaying from side to side watching this video! Cute and informative indeed. Click play!

Okay, basically adjectives are words to describe nouns (person, animal, things or places). For example;

friendly girl
ugly bear
beautiful mosque

However, there are various kinds of adjectives.

1. An adjective which tells us about the quality of the noun.
For example: the blue sky, a big house, a square table, a cold morning.
2. An adjective which tells us about the quantity of the noun.
For example: 
The zoo has many animals.
The pen has not much ink left.
3. An adjective which tells us about the ownership of the noun.
For example: 
That is my dog.
Those are their bicycles.
4. An adjective which poses question in an ‘interrogative’ manner.
For example: 
Which school do you go to?
Whose car is this?
5. An adjective which specifies a noun.
For example: 
This boy is a member of the club.
That girl is my sister.
¨ Adjectives which end in ‘-ing’, e.g. an interesting film, an amazing player, anannoying habit,
¨ Adjectives which end in ‘-ed, e.g. the damaged goods, the escaped prisoners, improved version.

Now, how about for some exercises?
Click here, here and here in order to know whether you've got it down pat! ;)

Worksheet: Simple Present and Past Tense

Dear students, you have learned about the two tenses. Now it is time to test your knowledge!

Simple Past Tense

You have learned about simple present tense and I bet you have mastered it in style of course ;) Now, it is time for you to know simple past tense. This is taken from the BBC website.


The tense of a verb tells us when the action was done. The action can be done in the past, present or future.
When do I use the past tense?
There are many ways of talking about the past in English, but the two main ones are the simple past and the continuous past.
1. Simple past

Use the simple past form of a verb when you are talking about an action that took place at a specific point in the past and that is now finished.
e.g. I kicked the ball and scored a goal.
I walked the dog yesterday.
went to Florida last year.
NOTE! The simple past is formed in different ways for regular and irregular verbs. For regular verbs there is a rule, but irregular verbs just have to be learned!
Simple past rules
e.g. 'I live in London now, but I lived in France for five years' = regular simple past tense
'I normally go to work by bus, but yesterday I went in the car' = irregular simple past tense

Wednesday, May 4, 2011

Simple Present Tense

Ahh, the subject of simple present tense. It is very easy to understand and use, yet people still confuse it with past or continuous tense. This is a very easy explanation, taken from the BBC website.

The simple present

The tense of a verb tells us when the action was done. The action can be done in the past, present or future.

Moving from past to future

When do I use the present tense?
There are two types of present tense -

1. Present simple

Use the present simple form of a verb when
  • The action takes place now.
    e.g. I want you to help me now.
  • The action is something that happens regularly.
    e.g. I walk the dog everyday.
  • You are describing things that are generally true.
    e.g. Train travel is expensive.
NOTE! When it is 'he''she' or 'it' doing the action, remember to add 's''es' or change the 'y' to 'ies'.

  • I like football, we like football, he likes football.
  • I always try hard, we always try hard, she always tries hard.
  • I watch a lot of films, we watch a lot of films, he watches a lot of films.
  • I seem OK, we seem OK, it seems OK. 

Lesson Plan on Quantifiers: "Some" and "Any"

Form: 2                                                                                         
Level: Upper Intermediate                                                                         
Theme: People and Social Issues
Topic: Chapter 10-Wise Choices (Grammar)
Objective: To teach students on the usage of the quantifiers “some” and “any”.

Learning Outcomes: At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
- Differentiate between the usage of “some” and “any” through understanding notes and a game of making sentences.
- Use the determiners “some” and “any” correctly and appropriately in sentences and daily conversation.

Moral Values: Cooperation

Educational Emphasis:
  1. Critical thinking skills
  2. preparation for the real world
Teaching Aids: mahjung papers, box.

Language Content:
1. Language for Informational Use
2. Language for Interpersonal Use

Previous Knowledge: The teacher has introduced the subject of quantifiers to the students.

Instructional Activity
Set Induction

  1. Teacher greets students.
  2. Teacher informs students they are going to continue their lesson quantifiers.

Activity 1:

  1. Teacher pastes a mahjung paper displaying the quantifiers “some” and “any”, their differences and usage in sentences.
  2. Teacher explains and elaborates on the notes.
  3. Teacher asks students whether they understand, and asks them questions to test their understanding.
  4. Teacher makes sure the students really understand the notes before moving on to the next activity.
Activity 2:

  1. Teacher instructs students to change their positions and form a circle.
  2. Teacher informs the class that they will play a simple game of “poisonous box” on the quantifiers.
  3. Teacher pastes the questions of the game on the board, which are in the form of a board game, drawn on mahjung paper.
  4. Teacher gives one student the “poisonous box” to be passed around when the game starts.
  5. Teacher plays the music and students start to pass the box around.
  6. Teacher stops randomly and the student who holds the box must take a strip of paper from the box and follow the instructions written on it.
  7. This action will continue until they finish answering all the questions on the board game.
  8. Teacher instructs students to go back to their previous sitting positions.


  1. Teacher distributes worksheets on quantifiers as homework.
  2. Teacher asks students what have they learned and recaps the lesson.

Notes: Quantifiers- “Some” and “Any”


-          Used in positive sentences
-          Both for countable and uncountable nouns
-          “A certain number of”/ “a certain amount of” but the exact quantity is unknown.
-          E.g:
1.      I have some friends.
2.      There is some cake left in the fridge.
-          Exception:
o   We use “some” in questions when offering/requesting something that is there.
o   Offering: Would you like some bread?
o   Request: Could I have some water?

-          Used in negative sentences or questions.
-          Both for countable and uncountable nouns.
-          A small/large amount of something which may/may not be there.
-          A sentence using “any” is GRAMATICALLY POSITIVE but the meaning is NEGATIVE.
-          E.g:
1.      Do you have any cheese?
2.      She doesn’t have any friends in school.

*The difference between the usage of "some" and "any" is so subtle, I sometimes miss it too! So it is important that you know what they are used for. You have to practice to really nail it, so here is a little game to test your understanding!

Click on this link below to play the "board game" that I've created on "some" and "any" !

Now that you know and have formed sentences on the quantifiers, try answering these questions! 

Please fill in the blanks with the quantifiers “some” or “any”.

1.      I can see a house, a lake and _________________ trees.
2.      I like ______________ songs by Lady Gaga but not all of them.
3.      Elina can’t find ___________ books on dinosaurs.
4.      Have you got ____________ interesting games in your computer?
5.      There are ______________ delicious macaroons in the fridge.
6.      Would you like ___________ butter?
7.      Mary-Ann has one bird, two cats and ___________ fishes.
8.      Are there ____________ messages for me?
9.      Sookie has not got _____________ friends yet in school.
10.  I have ____________ pens in my bag.
11.  My father has bought _____________ fruits to be eaten before dinner.
12.  Laila does not have _____________ patience.
13.  Is there _____________  juice in the fridge?
14.  I’m afraid I don’t have _______________ answers to all of your problems.
15.  Luqman has _____________ great ideas.
16.  Would you like ______________ breakfast?
17.  Please buy me _____________ pills for my headache.
18.  Is there ____________ student who likes to sing in this class?
19.  I could really use ____________ rest right now after working for 8 hours.
20.  Is there ____________ food for the cat to eat?